
energy domain, 
 electrical   power variables: electrical
voltage, electrical current 

magnetic   power variables: magnetic voltage,
rate of magnetic flux 

thermal   power variables: temperature,
entropy flow 

fluid   power variables: pressure, volume
flow 

acoustic   power variables: pressure, volume
flow 

translational   power variables: velocity,
force 

rotational   power variables: angular
velocity, torque 

energy 

entries   regions in the module boundary
surface to which the energy interactions of the
module are assumed to be constrained; the interactions
through the remainder of the boundary are neglected 

interactions   of a system module correspond
to the energy flow (power intake) through the
individual energy entries in the
module boundary 

experiment, 

real   process of observing and measuring the
energy interactions of a dynamic system while it
is exerted to certain conditions and excitations 

simulation   process of observing the
energy interactions of a dynamic system model by
simulation using a system model exerted to
certain conditions and excitations 

level of modeling 

abstraction   selection of model attributes (e.g.
conceptual, functional, physical or technological) 

idealization   chosen interrelation of model
variables (e.g. linear or nonlinear, timeinvariant or time variable, lumped or distributedparameter,
etc.) 

granularity   chosen zooming in system
modularization (e.g., devices from which the dynamic system is actually assembled, parts or aggregates
of such devices, or just some dynamic effects) 
 
mechatronics   approach to
the of intelligent dynamic systems integrated across engineering disciplines 
 
modeling   transition from a dynamic system to a
model description of a certain level of modeling
abstraction, idealization and granularity 

interval   interval of time, of ambient
parameters and of system variables as well as of
their time rates determined by model validation 

model, 

conceptual   characterizes causesandeffects in a
dynamic system or system module respecting algebraic rules 

functional   characterizes interrelations of
variables a dynamic system or system module
respecting algebraic rules 

physical   characterizes continuoustime
continuouslevel energetic interactions of system
modules respecting physical laws 

technological   model of a technological process
required to produce a dynamic system 
 multilevel   model the parts of which are
considered on a different level of modeling
abstraction 

multidomain   physical model the parts of
which belong to different energy domains 

discrete   functional model the model
variables of which are approximated by discretetime
and/or discretelevel functions 

hybrid   discrete model combined with
a physical model or a continuoustime
continuouslevel functional model 

model 

representation   geometric (showing geometric dimensions and
positions), structural (displaying the topology of internal structure) or
behavioral (concerned only about the outer effects) 

description   equations, block diagram, bond
graph, multipole diagram, etc. 

identification   process of determination of
model parameters based on physical hypotheses
and/or experiments 

validation   process of relating the system
model or module model to a class of experiments
to be performed on a dynamic system 

variables   characterize the current dynamic state
of a model 

parameters   characterize a model regardless of
its current dynamic state 

module 

boundary   geometric surface chosen in such a way
that it completely encircles a system module without
cutting into the boundary of any other module.
The boundary itself has zero thickness, but it can be
movable 

model   abstract and idealized representation of
a system module in the form of a model
description related to a class of experiments 
 
multipole   module model of energy
interactions of a system module governed by
the three multipole postulates 

pole   representation of a scalar energy
interaction of an energy entry of a
system module 

section   subset of multipole poles respecting
the multipole postulate of continuity 

multipole postulate of 

power intake   states that the energy
interactions of a multipole are fully represented
by its poleacross and polethrough variables 

continuity   states that the sum of all the
polethrough variables of a multipole section
equals to zero 

compatibility   states that across variable
between poles in a multipole section equals to
the difference of poleacross variables of the
poles 

prototype, 

real   dynamic system built to verify
correctness of a system design by experiments 

virtual   system model set up to verify
correctness of a system design by
simulation experiments 

reference, 

acrossvariable   voltage of the electrical
ground, temperature at the zero point on the absolute
or Celsius' scale, pressure of freespace atmosphere,
velocity of the absolute frame, etc. 

system, 

dynamic   region in space filled with quantities
of matter interrelated by energy interactions 

mechanical   collection of bodies in which some
or all of the bodies can move relative to one another 

mechatronic   multidisciplinary system with
intelligent control 

multidisciplinary   dynamic system
the investigation of which requires experts from
different traditional engineering disciplines 

system 

analysis   a subset of system simulation
related to an analysis mode 

design   process of determining the structure and
parameters of a dynamic system respecting specified
criteria 

synthesis   systematic and unambiguous
system design procedure 

optimization   process of modification of
system model parameters to achieve specified
criteria 

diagnostics   investigation of the cause of a
(possible) dynamic system failure 

surroundings   mass or region outside a
dynamic system 

model   abstract and idealized representation of
a dynamic system in the form of a
model description related to a class of
experiments 

module   part of a dynamic system separated
from the remainder of the system by a
module boundary 

modularization   process of imaginary decomposition
of a real dynamic system into real
system modules 

variables, 

power   pairs of physical quantities in
an energy domain  an across and a through
variable  the products of which approximate the bulk
values of energy interactions of a system module 

across   power variables which can be
measured between distant energy entries without any
severing entry into the dynamic system 

through   power variables which are measured
at one energy entry only, but to measure such a
variable directly one must severe the dynamic system
at that entry and insert a measuring instrument between
the entry and the remainder of the system 

poleacross   across variables of individual
poles of a multipole with respect to
an acrossvariable reference 

polethrough   through variables of individual
poles of a multipole 